Glossary

Arrow.png

If you're unsure of any terms use in our fraud information, please have a look through the glossary below to further your understanding. 

Alternatively, if you cannot find the definition your searching for, please contact us & let us know.

 

Malware

Malicious software - a term that includes viruses, trojans, worms or any code or content that could have an adverse impact on organisations or individuals.

For more information please see our section on cyber crime.

Laundering Money

The process of moving large amounts of criminally abtained money across bank accounts in order to hide how it was obtained.

Defraud

The use of deception to illegally obtain another person's money.

Fake Financial Services Firms

A fraudster pretending to be a financial services firm in order to trick a victim into giving away their money or account details.

For more information on what to do if you become a victim, please see our Being the victim of an Investment Scam infographic.

Identity Fraud

When a criminal uses somebody's personal identifying information, such as a name or bank account details, without their permission to commit an act of fraud.

For more information on Identity Fraud please see our page on Identity Theft.

Capital Gains Tax

Tax on the profit made when selling of otherwise disposing of an asset that has increased in value over the time you have owned it.

For more information on how this can be manipulated by fraudsters, please see our infographic on Being the victim of an Investment Scam.

Bank Account Details

The information used to acquire money from a bank account, for example the card number, account holders name, CVV number etc.

Action Fraud 

The national reporting body for fraud and cyber crime in the UK.

ATM Fraud 

Fraud committed in connection with an ATM machine and/or cash withdrawal, often executed with the use of a device to gather sensitive information. It is common for the criminals to copy the card & then use a counterfeit version to access the victims funds.

Please see our page on ATM Fraud for more information.

Lottery Fraud

An act of fraud in relation to a lottery. This can include cheating a legitimate lottery, or a fake lottery created with the intent to defraud victims.

For more information please see our page on Lottery Fraud.

Bank Scams

A scam designed to steal money from a bank account using deception.

Money Mules

A person whose accounts are used to transfer illegally obtained money between accounts.

For more information please see our infographic on Bank Scams.

Investment Scam

A scam in which a criminal uses inaccurate or fake investment opportunities to deceive a person into providing access to their money or paying the criminal a fee.

Fraudster

A person who commits fraud.

CIFAS

A not-for-profit fraud prevention membership organisation.

Money Recovery Scams

Where somebody who has been scammed is contacted by a fraudster who claims to be able to recover/return the money for a fee.

For more information please see our infographic on Being the victim of an Investment Scam.

Counterfeit Cards

A fake card that has been assigned bank account details (often obtained via fraud methods) & is used by a criminal to trick a bank into believing that the card is legitimate. This allows the criminal to withdraw money from the victims bank account. These can also be called telephone cards or fake white plastic cards.

For more information on this process please see our ATM Fraud page.

Security Software

Software that is designed to detect, stop and remove viruses and other kinds of malicious software.

For more information please see our section on cyber crime.

Scam

A dishonest scheme by a criminal to gain something from a victim.

Recovery Room Fraud

Where somebody who has been scammed is contacted by a fraudster who claims to be able to recover/return the money for a fee.

For more information please see our infographics on Being the victim of an Investment Scam.

Phishing

Un-targeted, mass emails sent to many people for sensitive information (such as bank details) or encouraging them to visit a fake website. 

For more information please see our section on cyber crime.

Sensitive Information

Data that is required to be protected from any unauthorised access as a means of protecting the privacy and/or security of an individual or organisation.

(Computer) Virus

Programs which can self-replicate and are designed to infect legitimate software programs or systems. A form or malware.

For more information please see our section on cyber crime.

Crime Reference Number

A number provided to you by Action Fraud once a case is logged. This will be used to identify your case within the systems of Action Fraud & the police.